It was measured as a dummy variable that is equal to one if the adolescent indicated both that Spanish is the predominant language spoken in their home and that they earned an A or B in English during the last academic term. I started really liking history and began doing really well in it. Instead, many Latinas are faced with internal and external obstacles that prevent them from reaching their full potential. Among 10th graders, this rate rose to 26 percent. Similarly, Nielsen and Ford [ 12 ], using a large national sample, found no significant gender differences for any of four different Latino subgroups included in their analysis.
Either they could not afford another academic semester or they could not afford the rent for another month. I worked really hard my senior year to improve my grade point average and even took an advanced placement course. Among 10th graders, this rate rose to 26 percent. Further, the most acculturated boys had alcohol initiation rates comparable to the least acculturated boys. In general, research that uses this measure has produced results that are largely consistent with the research on linguistic assimilation. This is a common problem especially in smaller universities where the population of diverse students is scarce and there are limited resources focusing on issues of discrimination. In one of the few such studies to focus on Hispanic secondary school students, the researchers also uncovered important gender differences and similarities [ 18 ]. GPA was based on a 4. Luckily, after a year I proved I was capable of being successful at the university level. Because cultural views discourage abortion, Latina teen mothers are more likely to go through with their pregnancies. First, does alcohol use and abuse vary with gender, ethnicity and acculturation among Hispanic adolescents, reflecting significant within and across group differences not fully recognized in past research? Strong and supportive family relations have been associated with selective acculturation [ 28 ]. The effects of the language barrier is two-fold for first generation Latina students when it comes to the college application process. Similarly, research on adolescents has demonstrated a positive association between acculturation and alcohol use [ 9 — 14 ] as well as other health risk behaviors, including cigarette smoking [ 5 , 15 ] and illicit drug use [ 6 , 16 , 17 ]. Given this growth, Latino youth are increasingly at the center of public debates about the risks of adolescent alcohol use and other addictive behaviors. These results are largely consistent with classical assimilation theory, a perspective that has dominated research on immigration and health. Presumably, the rise in alcohol use that is associated with acculturation among Hispanic women reflects the influence of the dominant culture in the United States, which is less prohibitive about women drinking than are traditional Latino cultures. For Latinas, this gap is explained partly by strict cultural obligations and gender expectations that often take precedence over higher education aspirations. Although these effects are serious, the more damaging problems caused by socioeconomic inequality relate to access to healthcare and sex education. Finally, most studies of acculturation and alcohol use do not compare Hispanic ethnic groups to third plus generation non-Hispanic white adolescents, the group to which they are presumably becoming more similar in their drinking behaviors. More specifically, do gender and ethnicity moderate the effects of acculturation on alcohol use? Childcare costs then lead to fewer Latina mothers pursuing higher education and increased difficulty in attaining a degree for those that do. The second measure, self-reported binge drinking, was a dummy variable indicating whether or not the adolescent reported drinking five or more drinks in a row in one day over the past 12 months. Bivariate results reveal significant gender differences in alcohol use among first generation Mexican American, first generation Puerto Rican, and second generation Cuban American adolescents. However, the consequences of these cultural norms for drinking behavior among these adolescents remain unclear. Data and Methods Sample This analysis uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Add Health , a nationally representative longitudinal study of adolescents 7th—12th grade in when the study began , their schools, and their families. These roles and expectations are gender specific and affect the decisions Latinas make about their future.
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