Representative AP recordings of control female and male hearts are shown in Figs. Action potentials were recorded in current clamp mode with whole cell patch clamp. The spermatic cord, vas deferens, and associated blood vessels were clamped and double-ligated with synthetic absorbable sutures and the testicles were removed. For ovariectomy, a 3—4 cm midline skin incision was made centered over the area of the cranial pole of the bladder. The ovary was separated from the broad ligament and the suspensory ligament. The procedure was repeated on the contralateral side to remove both ovaries. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Pflugers Arch See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Capacitance was canceled and series resistance was compensated as needed.
The ovarian vessels were double ligated with synthetic absorbable sutures and transected between the ligatures and the ovary. In selected studies, orchiectomized male and ovariectomized female rabbits were used. The procedure was repeated on the contralateral side to remove both ovaries. Furthermore we have limited the heterogeneity by cutting off both the basal 4—8 mm and the apical 5—10 mm of the rabbit hearts. Sex differences in potassium currents in females appear to underlie increased action potential AP duration, QT interval, and incidence of torsades des pointes. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Pflugers Arch See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Comparisons between values on two individual groups of rabbit myocytes were done using the two-group unpaired t-test. The contribution of sex hormones to these female vs male differences was assessed with studies in ovariectomized OVX and orchiectomized ORCH rabbits. Materials and methods Animals All experiments were conducted in compliance with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals published by the U. The Tukey-Kramer multiple comparisons test was then used to determine specific pairwise differences between the means. Data analyses were performed using Clampfit 9. Single cell electrophysiology Cardiac myocytes adhering to laminin-coated glass coverslips were placed in a small transparent recording chamber mounted on the stage of an inverted microscope TES; Nikon; Tokyo, Japan. Comparisons between the changes in APD and ISO values obtained on the same group of rabbit myocytes were done using the paired t-test. Capacitance was canceled and series resistance was compensated as needed. New Zealand rabbits weighing 3. Experiments were performed at room temperature. The testicle was exposed by incising the spermatic fascia and the parietal tunic. Terms included in the ANCOVA model were sex male or female , thapsigargin presence or absence of , and the interaction between sex and thapsigargin. Cardiac myocyte isolation LV Cardiac myocytes were isolated as previously described 47 , For orchiectomy, a 1—3 cm incision was made on the ventral surface of the scrotum of each testicle. Representative AP recordings of control female and male hearts are shown in Figs. Action potentials were recorded in current clamp mode with whole cell patch clamp. Isolated rabbit LV myocytes were stimulated at a frequency of 1 Hz. Briefly, 6 months old rabbits Abstract Slow delayed rectifier potassium current IKs is important in action potential AP repolarization and repolarization reserve. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record the membrane currents in single rabbit LV myocytes.
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